population density simply refers to the number of
people per square kilometre.
it can be mathematically write as
population density=total number of people/land
i.the quality of the soil
ii.the agricultural system practised
for HUman factor
i.Agriculture:area where agriculture is extensively
practised such as Egypt,java,China and india do
attract population concentration
ii.improved social and medical facilities:the
provision of modern and improved medica and
social facilities in area tends to attract more
population concentration
iii. industry:the concentration of industries in some
geographical locations such as pittsburg (USA),RUhr
(Germany)tends to attract more population because
of the availability of job opportunities.
for physical factor
i.availability of water:areas where water is readily
available for both domestic and industrial purposes
often attract high population concentration
ii.climate:areas of the world with equitable climate
attract high population concentration than areas
where the climate is not condusive
iii.soil:fertile soil tends to attract high population
concentration than areas that are infetile
i.the use of family planning techniques
ii.discouraging early marriage by fixing age limit
iii.encouragement of monogamy sex education
i) It leads to the spread of disease eg AIDS.
ii) It can lead to break down of traditional value and ways
of life of the local people.
iii) Over dependence of a conutry on tourism industry is
i) Abundace of wide space: space is necessary in order to
allow people to move about whenever they come to vist
the place.
ii) There should be a stable political atmosphere
iii) Strategic positioning: This simply means that a tourist
centre is a thing or place that should be built where
people will notice it.
-proximity to the source of raw material:many
industries are raw material oriented especially if
the raw material is bulky and weight is lost during
the processing.examples of such include cement
factory,sugar factory
-proximity to market:this happens when the cost of
moving the finished products to the market forms a
high percentage of the total cost,hence the need to
locate it close to the market
-nearness to the source of power:industries which
are large users of fuel and power often located near
the source of power
-availability of good transport system:the major
industrial centres of the tropics are also the major
rail,road,airways,highway and see route
centre,hence a lot of indutries are often
established because of its accessibilty.
-availability of capital :for an industrial set
up,wether private or a joint stock company capital
plays a major role in its establishment and survival
-insufficient capital
-lack of true entrepreneurship
-inadequate raw materias
-irregular power supply
-reduction of tax
-ensuring steady power supply
-provision of transport facilities
-increase in industrial loan
(5a).internal trade may be defined as the
exchange,buying and selling of goods and services
within a country.
i.Availability of good transport
network:transportation enhances internal trade by
linking different regions together by good roads
and railways
ii.Availability of common currency:this will
encourage or favour internal trade if the different
regions of a country have the same currency,for
instance (nigeria’s naira and kobo) which will make
sales and purchases easier
iii.availability of wide market:this also favours or
encourages internal trade if a country can consume
the commodities being produced in that country
iv.level of soil fertility:different regions of a country
have different levels of soil fertility which enables
the production of different crops.
i.bad or poor transportation network e.g bad roads
ii.spoilage of perishable products due to poor
storage and long distance in transport e.g
meat,tomatoes,and vegetables
iii.high rate of rural- urban migration
iv.high rate of pests and diseases which attack
crops leading to low harvest
-promotion of cooperation and development
-elimination of customs duties
-abolition of trade restrictions
-establishment of common tariff
-abolition of obstacles to free movement
-harmonization of agricultural policies
-trade liberalization
-expansion of market
-increase in competition
-exchange of raw materials
-problems posed by immigrants:the article 27 of the
ECOWAS TREATY which granted “community
citizens” freedom of movement and residence
within the community has created an escalated the
problems of illegal aliens
-increase in social vices:the presence of these
“community citizens” in some member states like
nigeria,has escaled the wave of armed
robbery,religious bigotry,arson,murder etc
-problem of language:differences in language has
greatly militated against the efficient functioning
of the community
-currency difference:this problem has warranted as
many as ten different currencies in the sub-region
and has made common payment system difficult
among the member-state,which has contributed to
the near failure of the community
-escalation of smuggling:this problem smuggling is
exacerbated by the free movement of the
“community citizens”

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